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Hitler’s aim was to split the Allies in their drive toward Germany. This push achieved little except to generate a further 2,500 casualties for the 14th Army. Battle of Anzio. This, vain-glorious blunder, the worst of the entire war, lost us a stunning victory, lengthened the war by many months and earned Mark Clark the contempt of other American and British generals. The Allies and Germans fought the battle. Only enough tank landing ships (LSTs) to land a single division were initially available to Shingle. How many were built in the United States by 1943? The marshes were turned into cultivatable land in the 1930s under Benito Mussolini. Later, at Churchill's personal insistence, enough were made available to land two divisions. Allied leaders were Lieutenant General Mark Clark, Major General John P. Lucas, General Harold Alexander and Major General Lucian Truscott, along with 36,000 soldiers. The operation was initially commanded by Major General John P. Lucas, of the U.S. Army, commanding U.S. VI Corps with the intention being to outflank German forces at the Winter Line and enable an attack on Rome. The 1944 Battle of Anzio stemmed from the Allied attempt to draw German troops off the Gustav Line during Operation Shingle. [65], There has never been any doubt in my mind that had General Clark held loyally to General Alexander's instructions, had he not changed the direction of my attack to the north-west on May 26, the strategic objectives of Anzio would have been accomplished in full. Part of the Italian Theater of World War II (1939-1945), the campaign was the result of the Allies' inability to penetrate the Gustav Line following their landings at Salerno. The infamous battle of Anzio lasted from January 22, 1944 to May 29, 1944. '[19] "However, Lucas did not have confidence in the strategic planning of the operation. Theodore was a soldier himself and a military historian who tells you the accurate and very true story about the adventure of the Allied forces on an Italian beach as they do whatever it takes to survive and win. Advance and secure Colli Laziali [the Alban Hills] 3. Allied naval commanders for Operation Shingle, The invasion plan originally assigned this unit to make a. Livorno is referred to as "Leghorn" in contemporary Allied maps and documents. Here is a quick synopsis. While one force was to cut Highway 7 at Cisterna before moving east into the Alban Hills, a second was to advance northeast up the Via Anziate towards Campoleone. He had ignored the orders of Field Marshall Alexander in a decision as militarily stupid as it was insubordinate. They are negative and lacking in the necessary drive and enthusiasm to get things done. In the skillfully defended terrain of southern Italy, the Allies in November 1943 during World War II were advancing so slowly that they decided to go around the German defenses by sea, hoping to speed progress to Rome. 217 relations. The New Zealanders and their allies who fought at Cassino also softened up the defence for the next attack later that year in May, but New Zealand and her allies lost much as well. The Battle of Anzio. Before the United States entered World War II many conflicts erupted throughout Europe such as the advancement of German troops into various countries (Nash 501-502). To support the landings, Major General Robert T. Frederick's 1st Airborne Task Force was to drop around Le Muy, approximately halfway between Draguignan and … During Fischfang the Germans had sustained some 5,400 casualties, the Allies 3,500. The Battle of Monte Cassino ... Total Allied casualties spanning the period of the four Cassino battles and the Anzio campaign with the subsequent capture of Rome on 5 June 1944, were over 105,000. Jerzy is correct. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. [34][35] Slowly the Allies were forced to give ground and by February 10 they had been pushed out of the salient. Raising the pressure further, Clark assigned U.S. II Corps which, fighting its way along the coast from the Gustav Line, had joined up with VI Corps on May 25 to attack around the right hand side of the Alban Hills and advance along the line of Route 6 to Rome. His concept was to land two divisions at Anzio, bypassing German forces in central Italy, and take Rome, the strategic objective of the current Battle of Rome. Part of the Italian Theater of World War II (1939-1945), the campaign was the result of the Allies' inability to penetrate the Gustav Line following their landings at Salerno. Jack C. Montgomery, who won the Medal of Honor by storming three German positions in the Battle of Anzio in World War II, died on June 11 in Muskogee, Okla. Neither Clark nor Lucas had full confidence in either their superiors or the operational plan. Noted military historian John Keegan wrote, "Had Lucas risked rushing at Rome the first day, his spearheads would probably have arrived, though they would have soon been crushed. The infamous battle of Anzio lasted from January 22, 1944 to May 29, 1944. It used just two infantry divisions with no armour. The Germans were well dug into prepared defenses, but were weak in numbers of officers and NCOs and, by the time of the late May offensive, lacked any reserves (which had all been sent south to the Gustav fighting). On the Allies' far right, the 1st Special Service Force would protect the American assault's flank. 23 Jan 1944 : The destroyer HMS Janus was lost off Anzio, Italy. This led to World War II, which began on June 14th, 1940 when German troops were sent to France to occupy Paris (Nash 500). It really affected the US Rangers. It did not immediately work as planned. The Anzio and Nettuno beaches are on marshland. [41] Also on February 18 while returning to Anzio the light cruiser HMS Penelope was struck by two torpedoes and sunk with a loss of 417 men. On February 16 at a high level conference hosted by Alexander and attended by Mark W. Clark and Henry Maitland Wilson, commander Allied Force Headquarters it was decided to appoint two deputies under Lucas, Lucian Truscott and the British Major-General Vyvyan Evelegh. RELATED CONTENT: Important Discuss; Discuss; Updated . Further troop movements including the arrival of U.S. 45th Infantry Division and U.S. 1st Armored Division, brought Allied forces total on the beachhead to 69,000 men, 508 guns and 208 tanks by January 29, whilst the total defending Germans had risen to 71,500. Anzio was a campaign, rather than a battle, taking just over 5 months. Anzio Beach was a stretch of sand 15 miles long and 7 miles deep. He argued that even regardless of the tactical outcome of the operation, there was immediate strategic benefit with regard to the wider war. His replacement was Major General Lucian Truscott, who had previously commanded the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division. Anzio Beachhead (22 January-25 May 1944) is one of a series of fourteen studies of World War II operations originally published by the War Department's Historical Division and now returned to print as part of the Army's commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of … By the end of 1943 the Italian campaign had become a stalemate as Field Marshall Albert Kesselring’s German army group stopped the Allied advance cold at Cassino. c. What is a convoy? Any delay could result in the occupation of the mountains by the defenders and the consequent entrapment of the invaders. The trap was left open. The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II that took place from January 22, 1944, with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle to June 5, 1944 with the capture of Rome. The Germans disarmed the Italians and took over the defense of Italy, but Naples and Foggia fell to the Allies on 1 October 1943. Despite the exhausted state of the troops, Hitler insisted that 14th Army should continue to attack. The operation was opposed by German forces in the area of Anzio and Nettuno. [17] The 1st Division penetrated 2 miles (3 km) inland, the Rangers captured Anzio's port, the 509th PIB captured Nettuno, and the 3rd Division penetrated 3 miles (5 km) inland. » Battle of Anzio; Map of Anzio-Cassino area in Italy, 17 Jan-19 Feb 1944: Map of Allied force dispositions at Anzio, Italy, ... "No bastard ever won a war by dying for his country. He planned to land two divisions at Anzio and capture Rome. She will sail the seas dedicated to preserving the freedom won on the Anzio beachhead while keeping alive the legacy of the boundless bravery and fighting spirit of each Anzio veteran. The Battle of Anzio was a battle of the Italian Campaign of World War II. Anzio Beach head – contemporary film footage, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 46th (Liverpool Welsh) Royal Tank Regiment, Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, United States Army Center of Military History, "Chapter 14: General Clark's Decision To Drive on Rome", "hey Were All Left Behind: A History of the Royal Fusiliers Company Z", "A German defence Area on the Anzio Front", "Anzio — The Allies' Greatest Blunder of World War II", The official history of the London Irish Rifles containing an account of the unit's participation in the Anzio battle, Anzio 1944 – German 10. After the war, Kesselring gave his evaluation: It would have been the Anglo-American doom to overextend themselves. It is known as the deadliest conflict in human history. See more ideas about Anzio, Wwii, Medal of honor recipients. However, it was later reselected. Most importantly, although the attack towards Valmontone and Route 6 would continue, 1st Armored were to withdraw to prepare to exploit the planned breakthrough along the new line of attack leaving 3rd Division to continue towards Valmontone with 1st Special Service Force in support. [67], On the new axis of attack little progress was made until 1st Armored were in position on May 29, when the front advanced to the main Caesar C Line defences. A succession of attacks resulted in heavy casualties on both sides, though no budge in th… A good number of the consequences of the Battle benefitted the Allies, with the Germans getting distracted from Anzio and France through March and suffering many casualties. In the morning of February 4 the situation was becoming more serious, with the 1st Battalion, Irish Guards (of 24th Guards Brigade), only having one cohesive rifle company left and on the opposite side of the salient, the 6th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders (of 2nd Brigade) was beginning to crumble and later lost three complete companies as prisoners. https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/battle-of-anzio. Battle of Anzio Interactive Map. Invading armies from the south had the choice of crossing the marsh or taking the only other road to Rome, the Via Latina, running along the eastern flanks of the Monti Laziali, risking entrapment. It took place from January 22, 1944 up to June 5, 1944. Actually, the Germans were able to remove both the monks and the treasures of the abbey; and, after the bombardment ceased, they in… The gun crew fought back with shellfire and shot down five German planes.[23]. The Germans disarmed the Italians and took over the defense of Italy, but Naples and Foggia fell to the Allies on 1 October 1943. The Allies eventually won but not before 7000 men were killed and a further 36,000 were left wounded or missing. Kesselring ordered an attack on the beachhead for January 28, though it was postponed to February 1. General Harold Alexanderhad thought of a plan using five divisions. The terrain of central Italy had proved ideally suited to defense, and Field Marshal Albert Kesselring took full advantage. With the breakout from Anzio finally achieved on 23 May, the reunited armies pursued the Germans north. Allied leaders were Lieutenant General Mark Clark, Major General John P. Lucas, General Harold Alexander and Major General Lucian Truscott, along with 36,000 soldiers. He had clearly made great political efforts to procure certain resources, especially the extra LSTs needed to deliver a second division to shore, but also specific units useful to the attack such as with the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. Von Mackensen's 14th Army assumed overall control of the defence on January 25. Anzio, located 30 miles south of Rome, was one of the deadliest battles of WWII. All the tanks used on both sides were post war US models in different paint schemes - possibly M-47's as used in the film Battle of the Bulge made 4 years earlier. While Lucas consolidated, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, the German commander in the Italian theatre, moved every unit he could spare into a defensive ring around the beachhead. Should Germany have adequate reinforcements available to defend both Rome and the Gustav Line, the Allies felt that the operation would nevertheless be useful in engaging forces which could otherwise be committed on another front. Nevertheless he might have 'staked out claims well inland. Alan Whicker who as a war correspondent with the British Army's Film and Photo Unit, and who was present during the fighting, later said: After breaking out of Anzio, Alexander's plan was for the Fifth Army to drive east to cut Kesselring's escape route to the north and trap much of his Tenth and Fourteenth Armies. [57], Truscott's planning for Buffalo was meticulous: British 5th Division and 1st Division on the left were to attack along the coast and up the Via Anziate to pin the German 4th Parachute, 65th Infantry and 3rd Panzergrenadier in place whilst the U.S. 45th Infantry, 1st Armored and 3rd Infantry Divisions would launch the main assault, engaging the German 362nd and 715th Infantry Divisions and striking towards Campoleone, Velletri and Cisterna respectively. The Battle of Anzio, which is also called Operation Shingle (January 22, 1944) was an Allied sea landing in the Italian Campaign against German forces of Anzio and Nettuno, Italy. All Rights Reserved. The Wiki page fully explains Anzio. This multi-faceted battle marked one of the longest and bloodiest engagements of the Italian campaign during World War II. Allied forces at Anzio Beachhead - 22nd Jan 1944. The land of central Italyhelped the defence. Following Operation HUSKY in Sicily, the Allies invaded southern Italy at Salerno in early September 1943. These canals divided the land into personal tracts with new stone houses for colonists from north Italy. [59] The first day's fighting was intense: the 1st Armored Division lost 100 tanks and 3rd Infantry Division suffered 955 casualties. Previously uninhabitable due to mosquitoes carrying malaria, in Roman times armies marched as quickly as possible across it on the military road, the Via Appia. 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