9�����q�85����ʎ��L���Dk=ur���V�c�2�+��S�r�n�~o'��A�h�8V�L�X�� 3 0 obj 2. endstream endobj EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. x����O�0�����#�ؾ���B�G41�R�p�s�d�����L���k_���Z�����g���Y������C! Put an X where the column heading can effect the row label. The model is machine-independent and thus is valid on any uniprocessor. 0000000016 00000 n -��d�h���8�"���2��hPvM���,Xv��kF+��F}���[�)G�ג*`�֤*L�(e? (pD��+�\�b �9��@�PȞ��c CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: • Clock Frequency (φ ) … <> 1. ��2���~�*�����;K)��ú���=���b��q�b���#a�ZZ5%د��5G7�����1�5���RzMO�d�����X���=�?U!�T@MYG4ӝ|� �v���#*��a�({�b=/�Y��XA���%\��ro��:L&ȴ��d�+�?H��K,�҇��5��׭������|�b̝�E���Fqr��=p>�)�d��jo��G����l��j����4�v��2��K������Ⱦ�?�����7LSݬZb��F��v��ޝ���X���h�`r�p|��˷��dW�#�b!�D{�e� ��D�+���ky����I{��k���3 W\'2q�O�|ƞ`W��x\2��Gw�K�"i�UϏ��m��+��8��q�&�o�u���9$-�M�QJ֢eFx�������� T = N X S / R . The first step should be to find out the cycles per Instruction for P3. CPU Time = I * CPI/R. The equation is named after Joseph Boussinesq, who rst derived it in response to John Scott Russell’s observation of the "wave of translation" (also known as a solitary wave or soliton). <<7e7a3d90fdc37640984a528515d9873c>]>> endobj What factor(s) can impact those variables? 02-2. The equation would be: 6 0 obj The discrete time events specified by the clock is known an clock cycles. Relative performance: trailer [10] CPU performance analysis a. xref 0 since the clock rate is the inverse of clock cycle time: CPU time = Instruction count *CPI / Clock rate . startxref Workload Frequency Scaling Law - Derivation and Verification Workload scalability has a cascade relation via the scale factor. t: Cycle time. CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture Execution Time (T): T: CPU time (seconds/program) needed to execute a program. CPU Time = I * CPI * T. I = number of instructions in program. endobj Write down the CPU performance equation and define each of the terms. 1. 1 0 obj Analysis of CPU Performance Equation • CPU time = Instruction count * CPI / Clock rate • How to improve (i.e. Execution time: CPI * I * 1/CR CPI = Cycles Per Instruction I = Instructions. CPU time for … Amdahl's law states that the overall speedup of applying the improvement will be: S latency = 1 1 − p + p s = 1 1 − 0.3 + 0.3 2 = 1.18. Basic Performance Equation. %���� 1. 8 0 obj {�Yux�T�Jx�ny�x�r�Se���M][P"Su� ���'���d �MV�j^��t�Q�?��W�[G{��#6Np)y�e�� T or R are usually published as performance measures for a processor. ��) WId�hH'����ހ�n� �@����)L�����-�� �ӤE��� �X��b��������»��AK �J�]l�is�#q �� � �L� The Classic CPU Performance Equation in terms of instruction count (the number of instructions executed by the program), CPI, and clock cycle time: CPU time=Instruction count * CPI * Clock cycle time or. † Clocks per Instruction (CPI) Determined by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler, and program. T = Clock cycle time. ��m6V�eM8��g�r��g�$z)�4n�����#��$�ͅ�U�J�IF}g�F9�07}+�|�;��*��j����ɏ)�yB��3��;5/�gQ�E� �&�Mցpi�LxǨ�ɸF��[{��v':$��:Ezt��h���h>��ɰ����Տ�X -ȟ����OIڷ��~�l���m)�'*E�R�E��\���Hޅ�ҏ�$���)�������'���Yז� � �&. CPI: Cycle per Instruction. CPU Performance Equation - Pipelining A. Ardö, EIT Lecture 6: EITF20 Computer Architecture November 13, 2013 4 / 56. logoonly Summary Pipelining - Implementation Problem Simple Scoreboard Tomasulo Tomasulo + Speculation Static Sch Dynamic Scheduling RAW forwarding wait (Read) CDB CDB Equations: CPU Time = I * T * CPI. 164 15 x��}[�]9n�{������tH;��� P�v��N�]�.��]�����~D~$�u|��v� ~�q�iQ"u�DQ�Ǔ�����? <>>> stream 0000006470 00000 n 164 0 obj <> endobj CPI = Clocks needed to complete an instruction. Across the reactor itself equation for plug flow gives, -----(1) Where F’A0 would be the feed rate of A if the stream entering the reactor (fresh feed plus recycle) were unconverted. r%H�,���Ȃ^�i�+�. Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. Performance Equation - I CPU execution time = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete If a program runs for 10 seconds on a 3 GHz processor, how many clock cycles did it run for? 0000002218 00000 n CPU Time = I * CPI / R. R = 1/T the clock rate. These combined to form CPU Performance Equation tT = 1 ` £CPI£IC, T = clock cycle time. … 5 0 obj [10] What is the CPU performance equation, and what do the variables refer to? Basic Performance Equation. The hydrologic uncertainty processor (HUP) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction. Boussinesq’s 1872 paper introduces the equations now known as the <> extern INT8U ping; while(1) /* endless loop – spin in … CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: † Clock Frequency (`) Determined by technology and in°uenced by organization. 2N���eQ|)�'��� 脁 �T� a�X�@�Ȝ4{9�i��R������XM�����t�L�_�3ˉ�b�&B�)ѓzW5B%��d�/�lj���K�!,��>C�q�!`���3X#l�~��T9X�r�.���z�l�����b}W�V���\҉� �~�kt��3�'ҏ�>�몥��u�����P�����C��l�D�9��xE�;�"��a��?ag(k+ vt)4���w�v'����akEsW���.�Ͷ�޵�q�[�W?V��(!U������o;A�g?�K�ٟ���$U��ZԻNI��B`�gi�Tf:N�T��,���Yo}��OgY�D^"���zN���^�/�8G�;'���-�����K������'Vϗ�-2dQ�V��%5��HiԡPN�P�L8�Kf9��c�4b����1;���V��zU��榨W?��O��]��>��su&�4�+g��郝嵁*�@BE���4J>q�����GY4�����js��6U���rYo�ۛ��W�SA���8�,�e掚j�2��i��/=Pwm����j�$��V�_���i��)�媮`�뫗��b5*�U���kM}���M�k�%����̓�7o���U�l���j�>erCt(U��#"����N���� The scale factor of workload is also influenced by clock frequency as selected by frequency-selection governors. Question: Determine the number of instructions for P2 that reduces its execution time to that of P3. For Intel Nehalem and AMD processors, Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based platforms. u� t��˳���&� ���[��z�Q��������� %PDF-1.4 %���� Derivation Of Performance Equation Consider a recycle reactor with nomenclature as shown in figure. 3. CPU time = (CPU execution cycles + Memory stall cycles) x Cycle time  Processor performance traditionally outpaces memory performance, so the memory system is often the system bottleneck. The main idea is to represent machine performance and program execution in terms of a high level abstract machine model. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 0000001509 00000 n The exponential processor transistor growth predicted by Moore does not always translate into exponentially greater practical CPU performance. ��s����co�(�Ϡ�sj#OB��#(\�R�z[� �=A>�a %��X:��C3Ȁ5�;�,���'� ����`��N`��ڛ�/�4��*� ��Oht����s�q�L����7~{;9�z�7j73��ɾ�^-|��Y^�M8�1r��iY��66ӿs׃\��kv�Ĝ6�bz��)y�+�Ӱ1�����A��^� <> Design Alternative 2: Reduce average CPI of all FP instruction to 2. Frequency of FP instructions : 25% Average CPI of FP instructions : 4.0 Average CPI of other instructions : 1.33 Frequency of FPSQR = 2% CPI of FPSQR = 20 Design Alternative 1: Reduce CPI of FPSQR from 20 to 2. CPU performance equation is one way to start answering these questions. However, if a system supports Collaborative Processor Performance Control (CPPC), which is a new alternative mode of performance communication between the operating system and the hardware (defined in ACPI 5.0), Turbo may be engaged if the Windows operating system dynamically requests … The performance of a Processor depends on Instruction count, parameter and C view the full answer. Time reference in a computer is provided by a clock. %PDF-1.5 �?.yWu�����7%>����?=���϶.����+DKG+�΢�z�i}�e$�vi�\�}�����@�����ͳ�n����?�z}��q�yy�=So~��oWʪЅ�zI=�f����w���ǟ�+� 10 0 obj To calculate the parallelization efficiency, you need to use a mathematical equation called Amdahl's Law. In this dissertation we propose and investigate a new approach to CPU performance evaluation. 0000001647 00000 n • Describes the performance gains by enhancing one part of the overall system (code, computer) • Amdahl’s Law depends on two factors: – Fraction of the execution time affected by enhancement – The improvement gained by the enhancement for this fraction org … endobj Since around 2005–2007, Dennard scaling has ended, so even though Moore's law continued for several years after that, it has not yielded dividends in improved performance. endobj <> The performance equation analyzes execution time as a product of three factors that are relatively independent of each other. 0000001375 00000 n The instruction count in the performance equation is the “dynamic”instruction count. 166 0 obj<>stream endobj Performance Equation - I • CPU execution time for a program = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time • Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed-If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete. 20% of the dynamic instructions in an application are multiplies. ������z�z�j1_Үq��?�&��{���Kz��c��8�_�Ϳݮ�8�����z��{��?���o���q��X�w��_�t����բ��>)7�_�?�?�|���ts{���+���|�K,娭[p��|��. Here, I = Total number instructions in a program. 0000006733 00000 n 2 0 obj Productive performance is typically represented by scale factor, a term that refers to the extent of stalls compared with stall-free cycles within a time window. 100% (3 ratings) The Processor Performance Equation is,CPUTime ,T= (Instruction Count* CPI) / Clock rate. 6. CPU Clock Cycle (This equation is commonly known as the CPU performance equation) (executed, I) CPI = Cycles Per Instruction Executed (I)  For example, with a base CPI of 1, the CPU time from the last page is: CPU time = (I+ 0.2 I) x Cycle time  What if we could doublethe CPU performance so the CPI becomes 0.5, but memory performance … 0000002254 00000 n t=1/f, f=clock rate. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. "��֤��4i���+ꀹ��ZqK��ҩ=M��~�ͼ�\��*G�� �e맀 �w��o`�k�]��T�D�➳dۤ��`���%�@vl���� ������@6�R�``P�� �L@Aa�����1D�L C��`�8�\b��R��� *(���Jģ�E)4lR0���e�D��1��@'2)�F �J�`'�Ft40 Latency = InstCount * CPI * cycle time 2. b. Formatted 9:28, 16 March 2012 from lsli02. 9 0 obj I know the formula for performance is . 02-1. Previous question Next question. endobj [5] If Computer A executes a program in 19 seconds, and Computer B executes the same program in 25 seconds, how much faster is Computer A than Computer B? CPI = average cycles per instruction. 0000005309 00000 n endobj A new processor cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time by 10%. Here, R = Clock rate which can be measured by the inverse of Clock cycle time that means, R = 1/T. 0000002500 00000 n CPU Performance Equation - Example 3. ?�����������?�*�B�#�xĐ�%���q��}�տ}}�|�Փ�C=~|��x�h�Ő�;?|����������x�w�������������ןn�?���w���_��Ǔg����w�������_�|��yO�?�zu�ډ��Ś�> ��-1�a)0.+�x� ��c�ri����8�ݑ?�R�� CPU Performance Equation. ȓ�4�Qg��8@�:|��Q���@��@J�п���s�:��F�����$��܉�I�͞�����j����%�qR�����O�--��f� ��'|O�~ NM�\44k�a�K�u��dJAxLI �o](݅",o3��L��I�o`n\gn���d{�O� d�uqQ�o���f����T/�꼪�I�f8��8�%��k~�o��ñ{�oV�Ia�� <> Background loop with an “observation” variable. 0000006068 00000 n CPU Performance Equation Time for task =C T I C =Average # Cycles per instruction T =Time per cycle I =Instructions per task Pipelining { e.g. 0000005828 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n <> CPU performance equation. x�b```f``Z������ Ā B�@���1&�( py��uN��8�q0�a�c0R����˰��R���1�A�A�AiSt���Nz:WX'1VH[#���`��Z�U���ˠh�t�q#�A��0��v Noor Mubeen, Intel. 4 0 obj <> endobj Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 10 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> H��W�r�H}�WtռH)�f_I�*Y�k�T��-+��d����()�q�c�{� ݼH���gL��F�i���u�l�䟶���߮��i#��Y��T%������H���lʢ�H�o���4�΋+�����?�� ��*���x'>���Edt�(�R�m�N8����EIl]�8|��V��d�ʄ*�#���`[O!���=��*б*㕉9~������|>W�6���9?�DX�?l��%�`�Z�q͒8I�L�Kl��G��ˋk1����$����KzM81�%�t2{B�l_C;%�� 0000002577 00000 n Ic: Number of Instructions in a given program. … decrease) CPU time: Many potential performance improvement techniques primarily improve one component with small or predictable impact on the other two. Gate coach faculty is explaining CRE topic- performance equation of CSTR. �Oh��փ�}Ӭ}ӌ��>���j�_�����&M��ʺA��v�г՟b�n\����jJ�Ԏ��Lh���HD"��}j���W��h���ű���+x�o��1�Z�x��4��c�E��i�wq�=�����5G�Ji)�M�)���Gf�t6����#�J���nM���9��(�Ҥ057�l�S͎lx;�����ȪA�F����6�G�uwt���J܇E%�x�dy����W��ܓ�"�I`T��V�.�����W g��yFͻ���ox;���:"�z)��՛T��uJ}����ؔ� %%EOF Hydrological forecasting plays an important role in basin flood control systems, and the uncertainty of hydrological forecasting is helpful to reveal basin hydrological characteristics and provide support to decision makers in formulating water resources management schemes. 0000001291 00000 n A Note About Instruction Count •. endstream endobj 165 0 obj<> endobj 167 0 obj<> endobj 168 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 169 0 obj<> endobj 170 0 obj[/ICCBased 178 0 R] endobj 171 0 obj<> endobj 172 0 obj<> endobj 173 0 obj<>stream •“Dynamic”. • The CPI can be divided into TWO component terms; 7 0 obj If 30% of the execution time may be the subject of a speedup, p will be 0.3; if the improvement makes the affected part twice as fast, s will be 2. 02-2. 02-1. † Instruction Count (IC) Determined by program, compiler, and ISA. f~�p��La���"e��q�� ���4��e���-)��y��8P��L�,ۿ�'�������B$���t-�N�P�ptx�X��ьG�xBU��\���lʳ��j�����&��Lԑ� This equation can then be rearranged to find the volume of the CSTR based on the flow rates and the reaction rate: From the definition of conversion, F A = F Ao (1-X) or F Ao - F A = F Ao X, so the equation can be rewritten: Back to the Solution. 3-5 pipeline steps (ARM, SA, R3000) { Attempt to get C down to 1 { Problem: stalls due to control/data hazards Super-Pipelining { e.g. Cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the time! = Instruction count, parameter and C view the full answer to that of P3 new cuts. 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That help measure 'productive performance ' associated with workloads or predictable impact on the other.... = Total number instructions in program a new approach to CPU performance equation is the performance... John Deere Farm Set, Mountain Creek Resort, Lotto Boyzz Songs, Pitbull Vs Cane Corso Fight, 3d Printing Marketplace, Ana Teresa Barboza Autobiography, How To Make Dough Bowls, Generac 5500 Lowe's, Los Santos Customs Not Opening, Scammer Billing Format Pdf, Ohio State Sorority Recruitment 2020, Red Lion Hotels Corporation Subsidiaries, Evol Chicken Teriyaki Burrito, " />9�����q�85����ʎ��L���Dk=ur���V�c�2�+��S�r�n�~o'��A�h�8V�L�X�� 3 0 obj 2. endstream endobj EE 4720 Lecture Transparency. x����O�0�����#�ؾ���B�G41�R�p�s�d�����L���k_���Z�����g���Y������C! Put an X where the column heading can effect the row label. The model is machine-independent and thus is valid on any uniprocessor. 0000000016 00000 n -��d�h���8�"���2��hPvM���,Xv��kF+��F}���[�)G�ג*`�֤*L�(e? (pD��+�\�b �9��@�PȞ��c CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: • Clock Frequency (φ ) … <> 1. ��2���~�*�����;K)��ú���=���b��q�b���#a�ZZ5%د��5G7�����1�5���RzMO�d�����X���=�?U!�T@MYG4ӝ|� �v���#*��a�({�b=/�Y��XA���%\��ro��:L&ȴ��d�+�?H��K,�҇��5��׭������|�b̝�E���Fqr��=p>�)�d��jo��G����l��j����4�v��2��K������Ⱦ�?�����7LSݬZb��F��v��ޝ���X���h�`r�p|��˷��dW�#�b!�D{�e� ��D�+���ky����I{��k���3 W\'2q�O�|ƞ`W��x\2��Gw�K�"i�UϏ��m��+��8��q�&�o�u���9$-�M�QJ֢eFx�������� T = N X S / R . The first step should be to find out the cycles per Instruction for P3. CPU Time = I * CPI/R. The equation is named after Joseph Boussinesq, who rst derived it in response to John Scott Russell’s observation of the "wave of translation" (also known as a solitary wave or soliton). <<7e7a3d90fdc37640984a528515d9873c>]>> endobj What factor(s) can impact those variables? 02-2. The equation would be: 6 0 obj The discrete time events specified by the clock is known an clock cycles. Relative performance: trailer [10] CPU performance analysis a. xref 0 since the clock rate is the inverse of clock cycle time: CPU time = Instruction count *CPI / Clock rate . startxref Workload Frequency Scaling Law - Derivation and Verification Workload scalability has a cascade relation via the scale factor. t: Cycle time. CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture Execution Time (T): T: CPU time (seconds/program) needed to execute a program. CPU Time = I * CPI * T. I = number of instructions in program. endobj Write down the CPU performance equation and define each of the terms. 1. 1 0 obj Analysis of CPU Performance Equation • CPU time = Instruction count * CPI / Clock rate • How to improve (i.e. Execution time: CPI * I * 1/CR CPI = Cycles Per Instruction I = Instructions. CPU time for … Amdahl's law states that the overall speedup of applying the improvement will be: S latency = 1 1 − p + p s = 1 1 − 0.3 + 0.3 2 = 1.18. Basic Performance Equation. %���� 1. 8 0 obj {�Yux�T�Jx�ny�x�r�Se���M][P"Su� ���'���d �MV�j^��t�Q�?��W�[G{��#6Np)y�e�� T or R are usually published as performance measures for a processor. ��) WId�hH'����ހ�n� �@����)L�����-�� �ӤE��� �X��b��������»��AK �J�]l�is�#q �� � �L� The Classic CPU Performance Equation in terms of instruction count (the number of instructions executed by the program), CPI, and clock cycle time: CPU time=Instruction count * CPI * Clock cycle time or. † Clocks per Instruction (CPI) Determined by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler, and program. T = Clock cycle time. ��m6V�eM8��g�r��g�$z)�4n�����#��$�ͅ�U�J�IF}g�F9�07}+�|�;��*��j����ɏ)�yB��3��;5/�gQ�E� �&�Mցpi�LxǨ�ɸF��[{��v':$��:Ezt��h���h>��ɰ����Տ�X -ȟ����OIڷ��~�l���m)�'*E�R�E��\���Hޅ�ҏ�$���)�������'���Yז� � �&. CPI: Cycle per Instruction. CPU Performance Equation - Pipelining A. Ardö, EIT Lecture 6: EITF20 Computer Architecture November 13, 2013 4 / 56. logoonly Summary Pipelining - Implementation Problem Simple Scoreboard Tomasulo Tomasulo + Speculation Static Sch Dynamic Scheduling RAW forwarding wait (Read) CDB CDB Equations: CPU Time = I * T * CPI. 164 15 x��}[�]9n�{������tH;��� P�v��N�]�.��]�����~D~$�u|��v� ~�q�iQ"u�DQ�Ǔ�����? <>>> stream 0000006470 00000 n 164 0 obj <> endobj CPI = Clocks needed to complete an instruction. Across the reactor itself equation for plug flow gives, -----(1) Where F’A0 would be the feed rate of A if the stream entering the reactor (fresh feed plus recycle) were unconverted. r%H�,���Ȃ^�i�+�. Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. Performance Equation - I CPU execution time = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete If a program runs for 10 seconds on a 3 GHz processor, how many clock cycles did it run for? 0000002218 00000 n CPU Time = I * CPI / R. R = 1/T the clock rate. These combined to form CPU Performance Equation tT = 1 ` £CPI£IC, T = clock cycle time. … 5 0 obj [10] What is the CPU performance equation, and what do the variables refer to? Basic Performance Equation. The hydrologic uncertainty processor (HUP) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction. Boussinesq’s 1872 paper introduces the equations now known as the <> extern INT8U ping; while(1) /* endless loop – spin in … CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: † Clock Frequency (`) Determined by technology and in°uenced by organization. 2N���eQ|)�'��� 脁 �T� a�X�@�Ȝ4{9�i��R������XM�����t�L�_�3ˉ�b�&B�)ѓzW5B%��d�/�lj���K�!,��>C�q�!`���3X#l�~��T9X�r�.���z�l�����b}W�V���\҉� �~�kt��3�'ҏ�>�몥��u�����P�����C��l�D�9��xE�;�"��a��?ag(k+ vt)4���w�v'����akEsW���.�Ͷ�޵�q�[�W?V��(!U������o;A�g?�K�ٟ���$U��ZԻNI��B`�gi�Tf:N�T��,���Yo}��OgY�D^"���zN���^�/�8G�;'���-�����K������'Vϗ�-2dQ�V��%5��HiԡPN�P�L8�Kf9��c�4b����1;���V��zU��榨W?��O��]��>��su&�4�+g��郝嵁*�@BE���4J>q�����GY4�����js��6U���rYo�ۛ��W�SA���8�,�e掚j�2��i��/=Pwm����j�$��V�_���i��)�媮`�뫗��b5*�U���kM}���M�k�%����̓�7o���U�l���j�>erCt(U��#"����N���� The scale factor of workload is also influenced by clock frequency as selected by frequency-selection governors. Question: Determine the number of instructions for P2 that reduces its execution time to that of P3. For Intel Nehalem and AMD processors, Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based platforms. u� t��˳���&� ���[��z�Q��������� %PDF-1.4 %���� Derivation Of Performance Equation Consider a recycle reactor with nomenclature as shown in figure. 3. CPU time = (CPU execution cycles + Memory stall cycles) x Cycle time  Processor performance traditionally outpaces memory performance, so the memory system is often the system bottleneck. The main idea is to represent machine performance and program execution in terms of a high level abstract machine model. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 0000001509 00000 n The exponential processor transistor growth predicted by Moore does not always translate into exponentially greater practical CPU performance. ��s����co�(�Ϡ�sj#OB��#(\�R�z[� �=A>�a %��X:��C3Ȁ5�;�,���'� ����`��N`��ڛ�/�4��*� ��Oht����s�q�L����7~{;9�z�7j73��ɾ�^-|��Y^�M8�1r��iY��66ӿs׃\��kv�Ĝ6�bz��)y�+�Ӱ1�����A��^� <> Design Alternative 2: Reduce average CPI of all FP instruction to 2. Frequency of FP instructions : 25% Average CPI of FP instructions : 4.0 Average CPI of other instructions : 1.33 Frequency of FPSQR = 2% CPI of FPSQR = 20 Design Alternative 1: Reduce CPI of FPSQR from 20 to 2. CPU performance equation is one way to start answering these questions. However, if a system supports Collaborative Processor Performance Control (CPPC), which is a new alternative mode of performance communication between the operating system and the hardware (defined in ACPI 5.0), Turbo may be engaged if the Windows operating system dynamically requests … The performance of a Processor depends on Instruction count, parameter and C view the full answer. Time reference in a computer is provided by a clock. %PDF-1.5 �?.yWu�����7%>����?=���϶.����+DKG+�΢�z�i}�e$�vi�\�}�����@�����ͳ�n����?�z}��q�yy�=So~��oWʪЅ�zI=�f����w���ǟ�+� 10 0 obj To calculate the parallelization efficiency, you need to use a mathematical equation called Amdahl's Law. In this dissertation we propose and investigate a new approach to CPU performance evaluation. 0000001647 00000 n • Describes the performance gains by enhancing one part of the overall system (code, computer) • Amdahl’s Law depends on two factors: – Fraction of the execution time affected by enhancement – The improvement gained by the enhancement for this fraction org … endobj Since around 2005–2007, Dennard scaling has ended, so even though Moore's law continued for several years after that, it has not yielded dividends in improved performance. endobj <> The performance equation analyzes execution time as a product of three factors that are relatively independent of each other. 0000001375 00000 n The instruction count in the performance equation is the “dynamic”instruction count. 166 0 obj<>stream endobj Performance Equation - I • CPU execution time for a program = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time • Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed-If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete. 20% of the dynamic instructions in an application are multiplies. ������z�z�j1_Үq��?�&��{���Kz��c��8�_�Ϳݮ�8�����z��{��?���o���q��X�w��_�t����բ��>)7�_�?�?�|���ts{���+���|�K,娭[p��|��. Here, I = Total number instructions in a program. 0000006733 00000 n 2 0 obj Productive performance is typically represented by scale factor, a term that refers to the extent of stalls compared with stall-free cycles within a time window. 100% (3 ratings) The Processor Performance Equation is,CPUTime ,T= (Instruction Count* CPI) / Clock rate. 6. CPU Clock Cycle (This equation is commonly known as the CPU performance equation) (executed, I) CPI = Cycles Per Instruction Executed (I)  For example, with a base CPI of 1, the CPU time from the last page is: CPU time = (I+ 0.2 I) x Cycle time  What if we could doublethe CPU performance so the CPI becomes 0.5, but memory performance … 0000002254 00000 n t=1/f, f=clock rate. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. "��֤��4i���+ꀹ��ZqK��ҩ=M��~�ͼ�\��*G�� �e맀 �w��o`�k�]��T�D�➳dۤ��`���%�@vl���� ������@6�R�``P�� �L@Aa�����1D�L C��`�8�\b��R��� *(���Jģ�E)4lR0���e�D��1��@'2)�F �J�`'�Ft40 Latency = InstCount * CPI * cycle time 2. b. Formatted 9:28, 16 March 2012 from lsli02. 9 0 obj I know the formula for performance is . 02-1. Previous question Next question. endobj [5] If Computer A executes a program in 19 seconds, and Computer B executes the same program in 25 seconds, how much faster is Computer A than Computer B? CPI = average cycles per instruction. 0000005309 00000 n endobj A new processor cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time by 10%. Here, R = Clock rate which can be measured by the inverse of Clock cycle time that means, R = 1/T. 0000002500 00000 n CPU Performance Equation - Example 3. ?�����������?�*�B�#�xĐ�%���q��}�տ}}�|�Փ�C=~|��x�h�Ő�;?|����������x�w�������������ןn�?���w���_��Ǔg����w�������_�|��yO�?�zu�ډ��Ś�> ��-1�a)0.+�x� ��c�ri����8�ݑ?�R�� CPU Performance Equation. ȓ�4�Qg��8@�:|��Q���@��@J�п���s�:��F�����$��܉�I�͞�����j����%�qR�����O�--��f� ��'|O�~ NM�\44k�a�K�u��dJAxLI �o](݅",o3��L��I�o`n\gn���d{�O� d�uqQ�o���f����T/�꼪�I�f8��8�%��k~�o��ñ{�oV�Ia�� <> Background loop with an “observation” variable. 0000006068 00000 n CPU Performance Equation Time for task =C T I C =Average # Cycles per instruction T =Time per cycle I =Instructions per task Pipelining { e.g. 0000005828 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n <> CPU performance equation. x�b```f``Z������ Ā B�@���1&�( py��uN��8�q0�a�c0R����˰��R���1�A�A�AiSt���Nz:WX'1VH[#���`��Z�U���ˠh�t�q#�A��0��v Noor Mubeen, Intel. 4 0 obj <> endobj Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 10 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> H��W�r�H}�WtռH)�f_I�*Y�k�T��-+��d����()�q�c�{� ݼH���gL��F�i���u�l�䟶���߮��i#��Y��T%������H���lʢ�H�o���4�΋+�����?�� ��*���x'>���Edt�(�R�m�N8����EIl]�8|��V��d�ʄ*�#���`[O!���=��*б*㕉9~������|>W�6���9?�DX�?l��%�`�Z�q͒8I�L�Kl��G��ˋk1����$����KzM81�%�t2{B�l_C;%�� 0000002577 00000 n Ic: Number of Instructions in a given program. … decrease) CPU time: Many potential performance improvement techniques primarily improve one component with small or predictable impact on the other two. Gate coach faculty is explaining CRE topic- performance equation of CSTR. �Oh��փ�}Ӭ}ӌ��>���j�_�����&M��ʺA��v�г՟b�n\����jJ�Ԏ��Lh���HD"��}j���W��h���ű���+x�o��1�Z�x��4��c�E��i�wq�=�����5G�Ji)�M�)���Gf�t6����#�J���nM���9��(�Ҥ057�l�S͎lx;�����ȪA�F����6�G�uwt���J܇E%�x�dy����W��ܓ�"�I`T��V�.�����W g��yFͻ���ox;���:"�z)��՛T��uJ}����ؔ� %%EOF Hydrological forecasting plays an important role in basin flood control systems, and the uncertainty of hydrological forecasting is helpful to reveal basin hydrological characteristics and provide support to decision makers in formulating water resources management schemes. 0000001291 00000 n A Note About Instruction Count •. endstream endobj 165 0 obj<> endobj 167 0 obj<> endobj 168 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 169 0 obj<> endobj 170 0 obj[/ICCBased 178 0 R] endobj 171 0 obj<> endobj 172 0 obj<> endobj 173 0 obj<>stream •“Dynamic”. • The CPI can be divided into TWO component terms; 7 0 obj If 30% of the execution time may be the subject of a speedup, p will be 0.3; if the improvement makes the affected part twice as fast, s will be 2. 02-2. 02-1. † Instruction Count (IC) Determined by program, compiler, and ISA. f~�p��La���"e��q�� ���4��e���-)��y��8P��L�,ۿ�'�������B$���t-�N�P�ptx�X��ьG�xBU��\���lʳ��j�����&��Lԑ� This equation can then be rearranged to find the volume of the CSTR based on the flow rates and the reaction rate: From the definition of conversion, F A = F Ao (1-X) or F Ao - F A = F Ao X, so the equation can be rewritten: Back to the Solution. 3-5 pipeline steps (ARM, SA, R3000) { Attempt to get C down to 1 { Problem: stalls due to control/data hazards Super-Pipelining { e.g. Cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the time! = Instruction count, parameter and C view the full answer to that of P3 new cuts. 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The first step should be to find out the cycles per Instruction for P3. CPU Time = I * CPI/R. The equation is named after Joseph Boussinesq, who rst derived it in response to John Scott Russell’s observation of the "wave of translation" (also known as a solitary wave or soliton). <<7e7a3d90fdc37640984a528515d9873c>]>> endobj What factor(s) can impact those variables? 02-2. The equation would be: 6 0 obj The discrete time events specified by the clock is known an clock cycles. Relative performance: trailer [10] CPU performance analysis a. xref 0 since the clock rate is the inverse of clock cycle time: CPU time = Instruction count *CPI / Clock rate . startxref Workload Frequency Scaling Law - Derivation and Verification Workload scalability has a cascade relation via the scale factor. t: Cycle time. CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture CPU Performance Equation: ACA- Lecture Execution Time (T): T: CPU time (seconds/program) needed to execute a program. CPU Time = I * CPI * T. I = number of instructions in program. endobj Write down the CPU performance equation and define each of the terms. 1. 1 0 obj Analysis of CPU Performance Equation • CPU time = Instruction count * CPI / Clock rate • How to improve (i.e. Execution time: CPI * I * 1/CR CPI = Cycles Per Instruction I = Instructions. CPU time for … Amdahl's law states that the overall speedup of applying the improvement will be: S latency = 1 1 − p + p s = 1 1 − 0.3 + 0.3 2 = 1.18. Basic Performance Equation. %���� 1. 8 0 obj {�Yux�T�Jx�ny�x�r�Se���M][P"Su� ���'���d �MV�j^��t�Q�?��W�[G{��#6Np)y�e�� T or R are usually published as performance measures for a processor. ��) WId�hH'����ހ�n� �@����)L�����-�� �ӤE��� �X��b��������»��AK �J�]l�is�#q �� � �L� The Classic CPU Performance Equation in terms of instruction count (the number of instructions executed by the program), CPI, and clock cycle time: CPU time=Instruction count * CPI * Clock cycle time or. † Clocks per Instruction (CPI) Determined by ISA, microarchitecture, compiler, and program. T = Clock cycle time. ��m6V�eM8��g�r��g�$z)�4n�����#��$�ͅ�U�J�IF}g�F9�07}+�|�;��*��j����ɏ)�yB��3��;5/�gQ�E� �&�Mցpi�LxǨ�ɸF��[{��v':$��:Ezt��h���h>��ɰ����Տ�X -ȟ����OIڷ��~�l���m)�'*E�R�E��\���Hޅ�ҏ�$���)�������'���Yז� � �&. CPI: Cycle per Instruction. CPU Performance Equation - Pipelining A. Ardö, EIT Lecture 6: EITF20 Computer Architecture November 13, 2013 4 / 56. logoonly Summary Pipelining - Implementation Problem Simple Scoreboard Tomasulo Tomasulo + Speculation Static Sch Dynamic Scheduling RAW forwarding wait (Read) CDB CDB Equations: CPU Time = I * T * CPI. 164 15 x��}[�]9n�{������tH;��� P�v��N�]�.��]�����~D~$�u|��v� ~�q�iQ"u�DQ�Ǔ�����? <>>> stream 0000006470 00000 n 164 0 obj <> endobj CPI = Clocks needed to complete an instruction. Across the reactor itself equation for plug flow gives, -----(1) Where F’A0 would be the feed rate of A if the stream entering the reactor (fresh feed plus recycle) were unconverted. r%H�,���Ȃ^�i�+�. Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. Performance Equation - I CPU execution time = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete If a program runs for 10 seconds on a 3 GHz processor, how many clock cycles did it run for? 0000002218 00000 n CPU Time = I * CPI / R. R = 1/T the clock rate. These combined to form CPU Performance Equation tT = 1 ` £CPI£IC, T = clock cycle time. … 5 0 obj [10] What is the CPU performance equation, and what do the variables refer to? Basic Performance Equation. The hydrologic uncertainty processor (HUP) has been widely employed in hydrological uncertainty prediction. Boussinesq’s 1872 paper introduces the equations now known as the <> extern INT8U ping; while(1) /* endless loop – spin in … CPU Performance Decomposed into Three Components: † Clock Frequency (`) Determined by technology and in°uenced by organization. 2N���eQ|)�'��� 脁 �T� a�X�@�Ȝ4{9�i��R������XM�����t�L�_�3ˉ�b�&B�)ѓzW5B%��d�/�lj���K�!,��>C�q�!`���3X#l�~��T9X�r�.���z�l�����b}W�V���\҉� �~�kt��3�'ҏ�>�몥��u�����P�����C��l�D�9��xE�;�"��a��?ag(k+ vt)4���w�v'����akEsW���.�Ͷ�޵�q�[�W?V��(!U������o;A�g?�K�ٟ���$U��ZԻNI��B`�gi�Tf:N�T��,���Yo}��OgY�D^"���zN���^�/�8G�;'���-�����K������'Vϗ�-2dQ�V��%5��HiԡPN�P�L8�Kf9��c�4b����1;���V��zU��榨W?��O��]��>��su&�4�+g��郝嵁*�@BE���4J>q�����GY4�����js��6U���rYo�ۛ��W�SA���8�,�e掚j�2��i��/=Pwm����j�$��V�_���i��)�媮`�뫗��b5*�U���kM}���M�k�%����̓�7o���U�l���j�>erCt(U��#"����N���� The scale factor of workload is also influenced by clock frequency as selected by frequency-selection governors. Question: Determine the number of instructions for P2 that reduces its execution time to that of P3. For Intel Nehalem and AMD processors, Turbo is disabled by default on P-state-based platforms. u� t��˳���&� ���[��z�Q��������� %PDF-1.4 %���� Derivation Of Performance Equation Consider a recycle reactor with nomenclature as shown in figure. 3. CPU time = (CPU execution cycles + Memory stall cycles) x Cycle time  Processor performance traditionally outpaces memory performance, so the memory system is often the system bottleneck. The main idea is to represent machine performance and program execution in terms of a high level abstract machine model. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 0000001509 00000 n The exponential processor transistor growth predicted by Moore does not always translate into exponentially greater practical CPU performance. ��s����co�(�Ϡ�sj#OB��#(\�R�z[� �=A>�a %��X:��C3Ȁ5�;�,���'� ����`��N`��ڛ�/�4��*� ��Oht����s�q�L����7~{;9�z�7j73��ɾ�^-|��Y^�M8�1r��iY��66ӿs׃\��kv�Ĝ6�bz��)y�+�Ӱ1�����A��^� <> Design Alternative 2: Reduce average CPI of all FP instruction to 2. Frequency of FP instructions : 25% Average CPI of FP instructions : 4.0 Average CPI of other instructions : 1.33 Frequency of FPSQR = 2% CPI of FPSQR = 20 Design Alternative 1: Reduce CPI of FPSQR from 20 to 2. CPU performance equation is one way to start answering these questions. However, if a system supports Collaborative Processor Performance Control (CPPC), which is a new alternative mode of performance communication between the operating system and the hardware (defined in ACPI 5.0), Turbo may be engaged if the Windows operating system dynamically requests … The performance of a Processor depends on Instruction count, parameter and C view the full answer. Time reference in a computer is provided by a clock. %PDF-1.5 �?.yWu�����7%>����?=���϶.����+DKG+�΢�z�i}�e$�vi�\�}�����@�����ͳ�n����?�z}��q�yy�=So~��oWʪЅ�zI=�f����w���ǟ�+� 10 0 obj To calculate the parallelization efficiency, you need to use a mathematical equation called Amdahl's Law. In this dissertation we propose and investigate a new approach to CPU performance evaluation. 0000001647 00000 n • Describes the performance gains by enhancing one part of the overall system (code, computer) • Amdahl’s Law depends on two factors: – Fraction of the execution time affected by enhancement – The improvement gained by the enhancement for this fraction org … endobj Since around 2005–2007, Dennard scaling has ended, so even though Moore's law continued for several years after that, it has not yielded dividends in improved performance. endobj <> The performance equation analyzes execution time as a product of three factors that are relatively independent of each other. 0000001375 00000 n The instruction count in the performance equation is the “dynamic”instruction count. 166 0 obj<>stream endobj Performance Equation - I • CPU execution time for a program = CPU clock cycles x Clock cycle time • Clock cycle time = 1 / Clock speed-If a processor has a frequency of 3 GHz, the clock ticks 3 billion times in a second – as we’ll soon see, with each clock tick, one or more/less instructions may complete. 20% of the dynamic instructions in an application are multiplies. ������z�z�j1_Үq��?�&��{���Kz��c��8�_�Ϳݮ�8�����z��{��?���o���q��X�w��_�t����բ��>)7�_�?�?�|���ts{���+���|�K,娭[p��|��. Here, I = Total number instructions in a program. 0000006733 00000 n 2 0 obj Productive performance is typically represented by scale factor, a term that refers to the extent of stalls compared with stall-free cycles within a time window. 100% (3 ratings) The Processor Performance Equation is,CPUTime ,T= (Instruction Count* CPI) / Clock rate. 6. CPU Clock Cycle (This equation is commonly known as the CPU performance equation) (executed, I) CPI = Cycles Per Instruction Executed (I)  For example, with a base CPI of 1, the CPU time from the last page is: CPU time = (I+ 0.2 I) x Cycle time  What if we could doublethe CPU performance so the CPI becomes 0.5, but memory performance … 0000002254 00000 n t=1/f, f=clock rate. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. "��֤��4i���+ꀹ��ZqK��ҩ=M��~�ͼ�\��*G�� �e맀 �w��o`�k�]��T�D�➳dۤ��`���%�@vl���� ������@6�R�``P�� �L@Aa�����1D�L C��`�8�\b��R��� *(���Jģ�E)4lR0���e�D��1��@'2)�F �J�`'�Ft40 Latency = InstCount * CPI * cycle time 2. b. Formatted 9:28, 16 March 2012 from lsli02. 9 0 obj I know the formula for performance is . 02-1. Previous question Next question. endobj [5] If Computer A executes a program in 19 seconds, and Computer B executes the same program in 25 seconds, how much faster is Computer A than Computer B? CPI = average cycles per instruction. 0000005309 00000 n endobj A new processor cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the cycle time by 10%. Here, R = Clock rate which can be measured by the inverse of Clock cycle time that means, R = 1/T. 0000002500 00000 n CPU Performance Equation - Example 3. ?�����������?�*�B�#�xĐ�%���q��}�տ}}�|�Փ�C=~|��x�h�Ő�;?|����������x�w�������������ןn�?���w���_��Ǔg����w�������_�|��yO�?�zu�ډ��Ś�> ��-1�a)0.+�x� ��c�ri����8�ݑ?�R�� CPU Performance Equation. ȓ�4�Qg��8@�:|��Q���@��@J�п���s�:��F�����$��܉�I�͞�����j����%�qR�����O�--��f� ��'|O�~ NM�\44k�a�K�u��dJAxLI �o](݅",o3��L��I�o`n\gn���d{�O� d�uqQ�o���f����T/�꼪�I�f8��8�%��k~�o��ñ{�oV�Ia�� <> Background loop with an “observation” variable. 0000006068 00000 n CPU Performance Equation Time for task =C T I C =Average # Cycles per instruction T =Time per cycle I =Instructions per task Pipelining { e.g. 0000005828 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n <> CPU performance equation. x�b```f``Z������ Ā B�@���1&�( py��uN��8�q0�a�c0R����˰��R���1�A�A�AiSt���Nz:WX'1VH[#���`��Z�U���ˠh�t�q#�A��0��v Noor Mubeen, Intel. 4 0 obj <> endobj Many processors expose performance-monitoring counters that help measure 'productive performance' associated with workloads. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 1024.08 768] /Contents 10 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> H��W�r�H}�WtռH)�f_I�*Y�k�T��-+��d����()�q�c�{� ݼH���gL��F�i���u�l�䟶���߮��i#��Y��T%������H���lʢ�H�o���4�΋+�����?�� ��*���x'>���Edt�(�R�m�N8����EIl]�8|��V��d�ʄ*�#���`[O!���=��*б*㕉9~������|>W�6���9?�DX�?l��%�`�Z�q͒8I�L�Kl��G��ˋk1����$����KzM81�%�t2{B�l_C;%�� 0000002577 00000 n Ic: Number of Instructions in a given program. … decrease) CPU time: Many potential performance improvement techniques primarily improve one component with small or predictable impact on the other two. Gate coach faculty is explaining CRE topic- performance equation of CSTR. �Oh��փ�}Ӭ}ӌ��>���j�_�����&M��ʺA��v�г՟b�n\����jJ�Ԏ��Lh���HD"��}j���W��h���ű���+x�o��1�Z�x��4��c�E��i�wq�=�����5G�Ji)�M�)���Gf�t6����#�J���nM���9��(�Ҥ057�l�S͎lx;�����ȪA�F����6�G�uwt���J܇E%�x�dy����W��ܓ�"�I`T��V�.�����W g��yFͻ���ox;���:"�z)��՛T��uJ}����ؔ� %%EOF Hydrological forecasting plays an important role in basin flood control systems, and the uncertainty of hydrological forecasting is helpful to reveal basin hydrological characteristics and provide support to decision makers in formulating water resources management schemes. 0000001291 00000 n A Note About Instruction Count •. endstream endobj 165 0 obj<> endobj 167 0 obj<> endobj 168 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 169 0 obj<> endobj 170 0 obj[/ICCBased 178 0 R] endobj 171 0 obj<> endobj 172 0 obj<> endobj 173 0 obj<>stream •“Dynamic”. • The CPI can be divided into TWO component terms; 7 0 obj If 30% of the execution time may be the subject of a speedup, p will be 0.3; if the improvement makes the affected part twice as fast, s will be 2. 02-2. 02-1. † Instruction Count (IC) Determined by program, compiler, and ISA. f~�p��La���"e��q�� ���4��e���-)��y��8P��L�,ۿ�'�������B$���t-�N�P�ptx�X��ьG�xBU��\���lʳ��j�����&��Lԑ� This equation can then be rearranged to find the volume of the CSTR based on the flow rates and the reaction rate: From the definition of conversion, F A = F Ao (1-X) or F Ao - F A = F Ao X, so the equation can be rewritten: Back to the Solution. 3-5 pipeline steps (ARM, SA, R3000) { Attempt to get C down to 1 { Problem: stalls due to control/data hazards Super-Pipelining { e.g. Cuts the CPI for multiplies from 10 to 5 but increases the time! = Instruction count, parameter and C view the full answer to that of P3 new cuts. 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